Selected Bibliography

The following is a selection of some of the scholarship on women’s representation on high courts that are drawn on in the book, Reimagining the Judiciary: Women’s Representation on High Courts Worldwide.

Africa

Albertyn, Catherine. 2014. Judicial Diversity. In The Judiciary in South Africa, eds. Cora Hoexter and Morné Olivier, 245–287. Cape Town: Juta and Co.

Andrews, Penelope E. 2006. The South African Judicial Appointments Process. Osgoode Hall Law Journal 44 (3): 555–572.

Bauer, Gretchen, and Josephine Dawuni, eds. 2016. Gender and the Judiciary in Africa: From Obscurity to Parity? New York: Routledge.

Bauer, Gretchen, and Rachel Ellett. 2016. Botswana: Delayed Indigenization and Feminization of the Judiciary. In Gender and the Judiciary in Africa: From Obscurity to Parity?, eds. Gretchen Bauer and Josephine Dawuni, 49–64. New York: Routledge.

Bonthuys, Elsje. 2013. Gender and the Chief Justice: Principle or Pretext? Journal of Southern African Studies 39 (1): 59–76.

Cowan, Ruth B. 2006. Women’s Representation on the Courts in the Republic of South Africa. University of Maryland Law Journal of Race, Religion, Gender, and Class 6: 291.

Dawuni, Josephine Jarpa. 2016. To ‘Mother’ or Not to ‘Mother’: The Representative Roles of Women Judges in Ghana. Journal of African Law 60 (3): 419–440.

Dawuni, Josephine Jarpa, and Alice J. Kang. 2015. Her Ladyship Chief Justice: The Rise of Female Leaders in the Judiciary in Africa. Africa Today 62 (2): 45–69.

Ellett, Rachel, and Tererai R. Mafukidze. 2013. Importing Justice? The Politics of Expatriate Judicial Appointments in Southern Africa. International Political Science Association RC 09 (Comparative Judicial Studies), Dublin, Ireland, July 22–24, 2013.

Kamau, Winifred. 2013. Women Judges and Magistrates in Kenya: Challenges, Opportunities, and Contributions. In Gender and Judging, eds. Ulrike Schultz and Gisela Shaw, 167–190. Oxford: Hart Publishing.

Masengu, Tabeth. 2015. A Perspective on Women and Leadership in the South African Judiciary. South African Journal of Human Rights 3: 655.

Masengu, Tabeth. 2016. It’s a Man’s World: Barriers to Gender Transformation in the South African Judiciary: Perspectives from Women Advocates and Attorney. International Journal of the Legal Profession 23 (3): 305–319.

Masengu, Tabeth. 2020. The Judicial Service Commission and the Appointment of Women: More to It than Meets the Eye. International Journal of the Legal Profession 27 (2): 161–174.

Oxtoby, Chris, and Tabeth Masengu. 2017. Who Nominates? Some Issues Underlying the Appointment of Judges in South Africa. Stellenbosch Law Review 3: 541–562.

Asia (Central, East, South, Southeast)

Abdelkader, Engy. 2013–2014. To Judge or Not to Judge: A Comparative Analysis of Islamic Jurisprudential Approaches to Female Judges in the Muslim World. Fordham International Law Journal 37: 309.

Cammack, Mark. 1989. Islamic Law in Indonesia’s New Order. International & Comparative Law Quarterly 38 (1): 53–73.

De Lauri, Antonio. 2020. Women Judges in Afghanistan: An Interview with Anisa Rasooli. CMI Insight 4: 1–5.

Kim, Haesook. 2009. The Avalanche Perspective: Women Jurists in Korea, 1952–2008. Feminist Legal Studies 17: 61–77.

Mohd Zin, Najibah. 2018. Female Judges in Malaysian Shari’a Courts: A Problem of Gender or Legal Interpretation? In Women Judges in the Muslim World: A Comparative Study of Discourse and Practice, eds. Nadia Sonneveld and Monika Lindbekk, 153–177. Leiden: Brill.

Sonneveld, Nadia, and Monika Lindbekk, eds. 2017. Women Judges in the Muslim World: A Comparative Study of Discourse and Practice. Leiden: Brill.

Szto, Mary. 2008. Gender and the Chinese Legal Profession in Historical Perspective: From Heaven and Earth to Rule of Woman? Hofstra University Legal Studies Research Paper 18: 195.

Europe

Anasagasti, Miriam, and Nathalie Wuiame. 1999. Women and Decision-making in the Judiciary in the European Union. Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs. European Commission.

Arabeyre, Patrick, Jean-Louis Halpérin, and Jacques Krynen, eds. 2007. Dictionnaire historique des juristes français (XIIe-XXe siècle). Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

Bacik, Ivana, Cathryn Costello, and Eileen Drew. 2003. Gender InJustice: Feminising the Legal Profession? Dublin: Trinity College.

Barmes, Lizzie, and Kate Malleson. 2011. The Legal Profession as Gatekeeper to the Judiciary: Design Faults in Measures to Enhance Diversity. The Modern Law Review 74 (2): 245–271.

Bartholomew, Paul C. 1971. The Irish Judiciary. Dublin: Institute of Public Administration.

Boigeol, Anne. 2003. Male Strategies in the Face of the Feminisation of a Profession: The Case of the French Judiciary. In Women in the World’s Legal Professions, eds. Ulrike Schultz and Gisela Shaw, 401–418. Oxford: Hart Publishing.

Boigeol, Anne. 2013. Feminization of the French Magistrature: Gender and Judging in a Feminised Context. In Gender and Judging, eds. Ulrike Schultz and Gisela Shaw, 125–143. Oxford: Hart Publishing.

Carroll, Jennifer. 2005. You Be the Judge Part II: The Politics and Processes of Judicial Appointments in Ireland. Bar Review 10: 182–188.

García Goldar, Mónica. 2020.The Glass Ceiling at the Highest Levels of the Spanish Judiciary. International Journal of the Legal Profession 27 (2): 189–202.

Hoekstra, Valerie, Miki Kittilson, and Elizabeth Andrews Bond. 2014. Gender, High Courts and Ideas about Representation in Western Europe. In Representation: The Case of Women, eds. Maria C. Escobar-Lemmon and Michelle M. Taylor-Robinson, 103–117. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hunter, Rosemary, Clare McGlynn, and Erika Rackley, eds. 2010. Feminist Judgments: From Theory to Practice. Oxford: Hart Publishing.

Kalem, Seda. 2020. Being a Woman Judge in Turkish Judicial Culture. International Journal of the Legal Profession 27 (2): 119–144.

Kenney, Sally J. 2008. Gender on the Agenda: How the Paucity of Women Judges Became an Issue. The Journal of Politics 70 (3): 717–735.

Kimble, Sara L., and Marion Röwekamp, eds. 2017. New Perspectives on European Women’s Legal History. New York: Routledge.

Kimble, Sara L., and Marion Röwekamp. 2018. Exclusion and Inclusion in the Legal Professions: Negotiating Gender in Central Europe, 1887–1945. Acta Poloniae Historica 117, special volume on Gender and Science in East-Central Europe: 51–93.

Liathain, Maeve. 2019. Women and the Law. Dublin: Oireachtas Library and Research Services, Houses of the Oireachtas Tithe an Oireachtais.

Malleson, Kate. 2006. Rethinking the Merit Principle in Judicial Selection. Journal of Law and Society 33 (1): 126–140.

Malleson, Kate. 2009. Diversity in the Judiciary: The Case for Positive Action. Journal of Law and Society 36 (3): 376–402.

Malleson, Kate. 2014. The Case for Gender Quotas for Appointments to the Supreme Court. UK Supreme Court Blog. June 27. Accessed January 20, 2021: http://ukscblog. com/case-gender-quotas-appointments-supreme-court.

Ní Liatháin, Maeve. 2019. Women and the Law: 100 Years of Progress Since the Sex Disqualification (Removal) Act 1919. Houses of the Oireachtas/Oireachtas Library and Research Service. Retrieved at bit.y/35lsaem.

Schandevyl, Eva, ed. 2014. Women in Law and Lawmaking in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Europe. Farnham: Ashgate.

Middle East and North Africa

Abdelkader, Engy. 2013–2014. To Judge or Not to Judge: A Comparative Analysis of Islamic Jurisprudential Approaches to Female Judges in the Muslim World. Fordham International Law Journal 37: 309.

Brown, Nathan J. 2016. Egypt’s Judiciary in a Postrevolutionary Era. In Egypt’s Revolutions: Politics, Religion, and Social Movements, eds. Bernard Rougier and Stephane Lacroix, 108. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Cardinal, Monique. 2008. Women and the Judiciary in Syria: Appointments Process, Training, and Career Paths. International Journal of the Legal Profession 15 (1–2): 123–139.

Klibi, Salsabil. 2016. Tunisia: A New Constitution and More Women Judges. In Gender and the Judiciary in Africa: From Obscurity to Parity?, eds. Gretchen Bauer and Josephine Dawuni, 80–92. New York: Routledge.

Lindbekk, Monika. 2017. Women Judges in Egypt: Discourse and Practice. In Women Judges in the Muslim World: A Comparative Study of Discourse and Practice, eds. Nadia Sonneveld and Monika Lindbekk, 284–316. Leiden: Brill.

Saad-Zoy, Souria, ed. 2010. Femmes, droit de la famille et système judiciaire en Algérie, au Maroc et en Tunisie. Rabat: UNESCO.

Sonneveld, Nadia, and Monika Lindbekk, eds. 2017. Women Judges in the Muslim World: A Comparative Study of Discourse and Practice. Leiden: Brill.

North America

Alozie, Nicholas. 1996. Selection Methods and the Recruitment of Women to State Courts of Last Resort. Social Science Quarterly 77 (1): 110–126.

Anderson, Ellen. 2001. Judging Bertha Wilson: Law as Large as Life. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Apreza Salgado, Socorro. 2014. Libro homenaje a la jurista María Cristina Salmorán Tamayo. Mexico City: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico.

Arrington, Nancy B. 2018. Gender and Judicial Replacement: The Case of US State Supreme Courts. Journal of Law and Courts 6 (1): 127–154

Arrington, Nancy B. N.d. Judicial Merit Selection: Beliefs About Fairness and Undermining Gender Diversity on the Bench. Political Research Quarterly.

Arrington, Nancy B. 2020. Group Selection and Opportunities for Gender Diversity in the Judiciary. Representation 56 (2): 149–171.

Backhouse, Constance. 2019. Two Firsts: Bertha Wilson and Claire L’Heureux-Dube at the Supreme Court of Canada. Toronto: Second Story Press.

Bolívar Galindo, Cielito. 2019. Camino que recorrió María Cristina Salmorán de Tamayo para ser la primera ministra de la Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nación Quíd Jurís 43 (enero-marzo). Accessed December 23, 2020: https://revistas-colaboracion.juridicas.unam.mx/index.php/quid-iuris/article/view/37379/34287.

Boyd, Christina L. 2016. Representation on the Courts? The Effects of Trial Judges’ Sex and Race. Political Research Quarterly 69 (4): 788–799.

Boyd, Christina L., Lee Epstein, and Andrew D. Martin. 2010. Untangling the Causal Effects of Sex on Judging. American Journal of Political Science 54 (2): 389–411.

Bratton, Kathleen, and Rorie Spill. 2002. Existing Diversity and Judicial Selection: The Role of the Appointment Method in Establishing Gender Diversity in State Supreme Courts. Social Science Quarterly 83 (2): 504–518.

Clark, Mary L. 2002. Changing the Face of the Law: How Women’s Advocacy Groups Put Women on the Federal Judicial Appointments Agenda. Yale Journal of Law and Feminism 14: 243.

Cook, Beverly B. 1982. Women as Supreme Court Candidates. Judicature 65 (6): 314–326.

Diascro, Jennifer Segal, and Rorie Spill Solberg. 2009. George W. Bush’s Legacy on the Federal Bench: Policy in the Face of Diversity. Judicature 92: 289.

Dovi, Suzanne, and Francy Luna. 2020. Women “Doing” the Judiciary: Rethinking the Justice Argument for Descriptive Representation. Politics, Groups, and Identities 8 (4): 790–802.

Gill, Rebecca D., Sylvia R. Lazos, and Mallory M. Waters. 2011. Are Judicial Performance Evaluations Fair to Women and Minorities? A Cautionary Tale from Clark County, Nevada. Law & Society Review 45 (3): 731–759.

Ginsburg, Ruth Bader, and Laura W. Brill. 1995. Women in the Federal Judiciary: Three Way Pavers and the Exhilarating Charge President Carter Wrought. Fordham Law Review 64: 281.

Goelzhauser, Greg. 2016. Choosing State Supreme Court Justices: Merit Selection and the Consequences of Institutional Reform. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Haire, Susan B., and Laura P. Moyer. 2015. Diversity Matters: Judicial Policymaking in the U.S. Courts of Appeals. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.

Harris, Allison P., and Maya Sen. 2019. Bias and Judging. Annual Review of Political Science 21: 241–259.

Hurwitz, Mark, and Drew Lanier. 2003. Explaining Judicial Diversity: The Differential Ability of Women and Minorities to Attain Seats on State Supreme and Appellate Courts. State Politics and Policy Quarterly 3 (4): 329–352.

Kay, Fiona, and Joan Brockman. 2000. Barriers to Gender Equality in the Canadian Legal Establishment. Feminist Legal Studies 8 (2): 169–198.

Kenney, Sally J. 2012. Choosing Judges: A Bumpy Road to Women’s Equality and a Long Way to Go. Michigan State Law Review 1499.

Lazos Vargas, Sylvia R. 2004. Does a Diverse Judiciary Attain a Rule of Law that is Inclusive: What Grutter v. Bollinger Has to Say about Diversity on the Bench. Michigan Journal Race and Law 10: 101.

Martin, Elaine. 1993. The Representative Role of Women Judges. Judicature 77: 166.

Martin, Susan Ehrlich, and Nancy C. Jurik. 2006. Doing Justice, Doing Gender: Women in Legal and Criminal Justice Occupations. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Means, Taneisha N. 2018. Race, Gender, and the Battle to Seat Constance Baker Motley, the First Black Woman Appointed to the Federal Bench. In Race, Gender, Sexuality, and the Politics of the American Judiciary, eds. Samantha Hernandez and Sharon Navarro, 98–122. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Means, Taneisha N., Andrew Eslich, and Kaitlin Prado. 2019. Judicial Diversity in the United States Federal Judiciary. In Research Handbook on Law and Courts, eds. Susan Sterett and Lee Walker, 231–245. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Moyer, Laura P., John Szmer, Susan Haire, and Robert K. Christensen. 2020. Diversity, Consensus and Decision Making: Evidence from the U.S. Courts of Appeal. Politics, Groups and Identities 8 (4): 822–833.

Onwuachi-Willig, Angela. 2005. Representative Government, Representative Court? The Supreme Court as a Representative Body. Minnesota Law Review 90: 1252.

Palmer, Barbara. 2001. Women in the American Judiciary Women & Politics 23 (3): 91–101.

Penrose, Meg. 2018. The Way Pavers: Eleven Supreme Court-worthy Women. Harvard Journal of Law and Gender 1: 1–32.

Peresie, Jennifer L. 2005. Female Judges Matter: Gender and Collegial Decisionmaking in the Federal Appellate Courts. The Yale Law Journal 114 (7): 1759–1790.

Rossman, Lynn C. 1980. Women Judges Unite: A Report from the Founding Convention of the National Association of Women Judges Golden Gate University Law Review 10 (3): 1237–1266.

Sen, Maya. 2014. How Judicial Qualification Ratings May Disadvantage Minority and Female Candidates. Journal of Law and Courts 2 (1): 33–65.

Segal, Jennifer A. 2000. Representative Decision Making on the Federal Bench: Clinton’s District Court Appointees. Political Research Quarterly 53 (1): 137–150.

Solberg, Rorie L. Spill, and Kathleen A. Bratton. 2005. Diversifying the Federal Bench: Presidential Patterns. Justice System Journal 26 (2): 119–133.

Songer, Donald R., and Kelley A. Crews-Meyer. 2000. Does Judge Gender Matter? Decision Making in State Supreme Courts. Social Science Quarterly 81 (3): 750–762.

Sotomayor, Sonia. 2002. A Latina Judge’s Voice. Berkeley La Raza 13 (1): 87–94.

Williams, Margaret S. 2007. Women’s Representation on State Trial and Appellate Courts. Social Science Quarterly 88 (5): 1192–1204.

Central and South America

Arana Araya, Ignacio, Melanie M. Hughes, and Aníbal Pérez-Liñán. 2021. Judicial Reshuffles and Women Justices in Latin America. American Journal of Political Science 65 (2): 373–388.

Bonelli, Maria da Gloria. 2015. Brazilian Judges In-Between Professionalism, Gender and Difference. International Journal of the Legal Profession 22 (2): 134–150.

Cajas Sarria, Mario Alberto. 2015. La Historia de la Corte Suprema de Justicia de Colombia, 1886–1991 Tomo II: Del Frente Nacional a la Asamblea Constituyente, 1958–1991. Bogotá, Colombia: Universidad de los Andes.

Castagnola, Andrea. 2018. Manipulating Courts in New Democracies: Forcing Judges off the Bench in Argentina. New York: Taylor & Francis.

Corporación Simsa Mujer. 2007. Informe Colombia: Diagnóstico de la Situación de las Mujeres en la Administración de Justicia en Colombia. Bogotá, Colombia: Corporación Simsa Mujer.

Correa Henao, Néstor Raúl. 2013. Gráficas de Participación de la Mujer en la Rama Judicial in Género y Justicia Transicional. Comisión Nacional de Genero de la Rama Judicial, Republica de Colombia.

Driscoll, Amanda, and Michael J. Nelson. 2015. Judicial Selection and the Democratization of Justice. Journal of Law and Courts 3 (1): 115–148.

Fundación Justicia y Género. 2021. Encuentro Magistradas Iberoamericanas. Accessed January 20, 2021: https://fundacionjyg.org/encuentro-magistradas-iberoamericanas/.

Jaramillo, Isabel Cristina. 2000. Legal Reform, Feminism, and Patriarchy in Colombia: The Case of the Law of Quotas for Women in High-Decision Making Positions Within the Executive Branch. Doctoral Dissertation, Harvard Law School.

Participación de la Mujer en la Rama Judicial Año. 2014. Consejo Superior de la Juridicatura. Accessed August 6, 2017: https://www.ramajudicial.gov.co/documents/573203/1435206/ESTADISTICAS+G%C%A9nero_2014_mujer+V.2.pdf/8229193a-c887-43b4-8edd-99fe44740e4d.

Roche, Carme Luisa. 2003. Feminisation of the Legal Profession in Venezuela: Its Meaning for the Profession and for Women Lawyers. International Journal of the Legal Profession 10 (2): 209–226.

Walker, Lee Demetrius. 2008. Gender and Attitudes toward Justice System Bias in Central America. Latin American Research Review 43 (2): 80–106.

Oceania

Thornton, Margaret. 2007. ‘Otherness’ on the Bench: How Merit is Gendered. Sydney Law Review 29: 391.

Global and Cross-Regional Studies

Arrington, Nancy, Leann Bass, Adam Glynn, Jeffrey Staton, Brian Delgado, and Staffan Lindberg. N.d. Constitutional Reform and the Gender Diversification of Peak Courts. American Political Science Review. doi:10.1017/S0003055421000071

Escobar-Lemmon, Maria C., Valerie Hoekstra, Alice J. Kang, and Miki Caul Kittilson. 2016. Just the Facts? Media Coverage of Female and Male High Court Appointees in Five Democracies. Politics & Gender 12 (2): 254–274.

Escobar-Lemmon, Maria C., Valerie Hoekstra, Alice J. Kang, and Miki Caul Kittilson. 2021. Breaking the Judicial Glass Ceiling: The Appointment of Women to High Court Worldwide. The Journal of Politics 83 (2): 662–674.

Hoekstra, Valerie. 2010. Increasing the Gender Diversity of High Courts: A Comparative View. Politics & Gender 6 (3): 474–484.

Hunter, Rosemary. 2008. Can Feminist Judges Make a Difference? International Journal of the Legal Profession 15 (1–2): 7–36.

Hunter, Rosemary. 2015. More than Just a Different Face? Judicial Diversity and Decisionmaking. Current Legal Problems 68: 119–141.

Kang, Alice J., Miki Caul Kittilson, Valerie Hoekstra, and Maria C. Escobar-Lemmon. 2020. Diverse and Inclusive High Courts: A Global and Intersectional Perspective. Politics, Groups, and Identities 8 (4) 812–821.

Kenney, Sally J. 2013. Gender and Justice: Why Women in the Judiciary Really Matter. New York: Routledge.

Malleson, Kate, and Peter H. Russell, eds. 2006. Appointing Judges in an Age of Judicial Power: Critical Perspectives from Around the World. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Schultz, Ulrike, and Tabeth Masengu. 2020. Women and Judicial Appointments. International Journal of the Legal Profession 27 (2): 113–17.

Schultz, Ulrike, and Gisela Shaw, eds. 2003. Women in the World’s Legal Professions. Oxford: Hart Publishing.

Schultz, Ulrike, and Gisela Shaw, eds. 2013. Gender and Judging. Oxford: Hart Publishing.

Sonneveld, Nadia, and Monika Lindbekk, eds. 2017. Women Judges in the Muslim World: A Comparative Study of Discourse and Practice. Leiden: Brill.

Valdini, Melody Ellis, and Christopher Shortell. 2016. Women’s Representation in the Highest Court: A Comparative Analysis of the Appointment of Female Justices. Political Research Quarterly 69 (4): 865–876.

Williams, Margaret S., and Frank C. Thames. 2008. Women’s Representation on High Courts in Advanced Industrialized Countries. Politics & Gender 4 (3): 451–471.

International Courts

Chappell, Louise. 2015. The Politics of Gender Justice at the International Criminal Court: Legacies and Legitimacy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos. 2019. Composiciones: Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos 1979–2019. San José, Costa Rica: Corte IDH.

Dawuni, J. Jarpa. 2018. African Woman Judges on International Courts: Symbolic or Substantive Gains? University of Baltimore Law Review 47 (2): 199–245.

Dawuni, Josephine Jarpa, and Akua Kuenyehia, eds. 2018. International Courts and the African Woman Judge: Unveiled Narratives. New York: Routledge.

Dawuni, J. Jarpa. 2020. Vive la Diversité or Aluta Continua? Achieving Gender Equity on the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights. Connecticut Journal of International Law. 34 (3): 380–402.

Grossman, Nienke. 2016. Achieving Sex-Representative International Court Benches. American Journal of International Law 110: 82–95.

Moyer, Laura P. 2019. Gender on the International Bench. In Research Handbook on Law and Courts, eds. Susan M. Sterett and Lee Demetrius Walker, 187–199. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Spees, Pam, ed. 1999. The International Criminal Court: The Beijing Platform In Action. Accessed December 17, 2020: http://iccwomen.org/wigjdraft1/Archives/oldWCGJ/resources/bplus5/Introduction.html.

Spees, Pam. 2003. Women’s Advocacy in the Creation of the International Criminal Court: Changing the Landscapes of Justice and Power. Signs 28 (4): 1233–1254.